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In the late nineteenth century, hostilities broke out between Tswana inhabitants of Botswana and Ndebele tribes who were making incursions into the territory from the north-east.
Tensions also escalated with the Dutch Boer settlers from the Transvaal to the east.
The northern territory remained under direct administration as the Bechuanaland Protectorate; it gained independence as modern-day Botswana.
About a thousand years ago, large chiefdoms emerged that were later eclipsed by the Great Zimbabwe empire, which spread into eastern Botswana.
Around 1300 CE, peoples in present-day Transvaal began to coalesce into three main linguistic and political groups, including the Batswana.
Conquered tribes began to move northwest into Botswana, destroying everything in their path.
In their efforts to re-establish themselves at the end of this period, tribes began to exchange ivory and skins for guns with European traders, who had begun to reach the interior.